What are chronic diseases and why is medical monitoring necessary

What are chronic diseases and why is medical monitoring necessary

Chronic diseases are those that last for a long time, usually from three months, or accompany the patient for the rest of his life. The images do not endanger the patient’s life in the short term, that is, they are not considered medical emergencies.

But for a person to enjoy longevity and ensure a good quality of life, regular follow-up with doctors and other health professionals, when necessary, is essential.

“Many chronic diseases have no cure, but they can be controlled. Regular check-ups with a doctor should be a part of a patient’s life, because for many, this disease will always be there. A health professional will be able to assess whether the medication is in the correct dosage. Correct And if the treatment needs changing,” notes Ricardo Pereira, general practitioner and cardiologist at HUWC (Walter Candeo University Hospital), affiliated with the UFC (Federal University of Ceará).

In some cases, such as people with high blood pressure (hypertension), forgetting to take the prescribed medication for just one day can cause headache, dizziness and general malaise.

Therefore, in addition to regular consultation with the doctor, the patient also needs to be aware of the risks of his illness and the responsibility he has to take care of his health.

Medications for the country’s most prevalent chronic diseases, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, are available in the SUS (Unified Health System) and usually present few side effects, usually mild, or no physical or psychological changes to the patient.

Nilton Carneiro, MD, a cardiologist at Santa Hospital, says: Catarina / Paulista (SP).

Most chronic diseases are not contagious. “But some conditions, such as tuberculosis, which can be considered chronic because of the duration of the disease and follow-up of the patient, have a long transmission time,” Carneiro explains.

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What are the most common chronic diseases and their risks?

According to the latest PNS (National Health Survey) conducted by IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) in 2019, some of the most prevalent diseases in Brazil are: high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma, depression, chronic heart disease (such as arrhythmia), chronic lung disease (such as bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cancer and kidney failure.

Some of these diseases, explains cardiologist Ricardo Pereira, are linked to genetic factors, such as asthma and type 1 diabetes. Others, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are more related to environmental factors, such as the high level of pollution in cities. Habits like smoking.

Among the greatest risks when chronic diseases are not treated properly, according to Dr. Nilton Carneiro, are conditions that have the potential to harm the proper function of certain organs, such as stroke (cerebrovascular accident), heart attack, and chronic kidney failure.

“These diseases can lead to physical disability or even death,” continues Tiago Miranda López de Almeida, a specialist in intensive care medicine and an intensive care unit physician at Jabones Santa Cruz Hospital, in São Paulo.

But each disease has specific characteristics, which can be more or less dangerous depending on the exacerbation of the condition itself and also on the general state of health of the patient: whether it is a young person with only one disease, or a person who is very old and more immune at risk.

Is it possible to prevent the emergence of chronic diseases?

Some chronic diseases, as noted above, have family history. But the best way to prevent these conditions from arising – the unanimous agreement of doctors – is still to live a healthy life, consume good foods, move the body and take care of mental health.

“The main actions aimed at preventing these diseases are regular physical activities, healthy eating, avoidance of bad habits such as consumption of alcoholic beverages, smoking habits and a sedentary lifestyle,” notes Carlos Ribeiro, a general practitioner in intensive care at the hospital. Japonês Santa Cruz Hospital, in São Paulo.

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