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In 2022, and more specifically in June, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a declaration of an outbreak of monkeypox and, therefore, a Public Health Emergency of International Importance (ESPII). In fact, if you think about it, this is the seventh time that the World Health Organization has done this classification in at least the last 15 years.
From this perspective, it is important to point out that the International Health Regulations (IHR), implemented by the World Health Organization in 2007, was configured as a legally binding agreement for 194 countries; It aims to prevent, mitigate and take necessary measures if any disease begins to pose risks on a global scale.
However, although primary health emergencies (PHEICs) can also be issued through infectious diseases caused by chemical or radioactive materials, all WHO declarations made in the past 15 years have been related to viral diseases. Check here the seven times the World Health Organization has issued these alerts. Read more!
H1N1 influenza (2009-2010)
In 2009, two San Diego kids were infected with H1N1, the virus that ended up adapting from the common flu to swine creatures. In fact, animals transmit viruses to humans is a common occurrence in evolution, however, the biggest problem occurs when humans start infecting humans, as happened with Covid-19.
In short, in late 2009, as this disease was resistant to some antiviral drugs, the World Health Organization declared the first ESPII since the creation of the RSI.
Read more: Find out the best seats on the plane to avoid infection with viruses and bacteria
Polio (2014 – in progress)
Historically, the polio outbreak in the United States occurred in the 1950s, and although it wasn’t the first outbreak, it ended up being the scariest yet. In fact, not much was known about the polio virus at the time, and Americans end up blaming everything from insects to immigrants.
In light of this, it is important to make clear that this virus, despite its serious consequences, is not as deadly as it was portrayed at the time; However, the rate of its contamination is ridiculous. In 2014, a primary health emergency (PHEIC) was declared, although there were only 74 cases of the disease worldwide, especially in Pakistan.
West Africa Ebola (2014-2016)
In fact, the largest Ebola outbreak ever recorded was 28,000 cases of hemorrhagic fever and 11,310 deaths, with a 40% case fatality rate. Many people believe that the origin of the outbreak was in Guinea, in 2014, which was the year an 18-month-old baby was infected by bats. Then, four months later, the World Health Organization announced ESPII in August 2014.
In 2015, some doctors in Brazil began noticing cases of microcephaly in newborns. As a result, it turned out that Zika was the first arthropod virus – a virus transmitted by insects – to cause an international health emergency.
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ebola (2019-2020).
Indeed, Ebola strikes again, but this time in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. During this latest outbreak, about 2,000 people died and 3,400 were infected. In late 2019 to early 2020, this was the largest outbreak of this disease in the country to date, but it lagged behind the outbreak that occurred years earlier in West Africa. As a result, the World Health Organization declared ESPII.
COVID-19 (2020 – in progress)
Recently, Covid-19 has become a global nightmare of the 21st century. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared a public emergency for the Covid-19 pandemic. This virus, as we see, has a very high rate of adaptation and infection, being one of the worst global epidemics in human history.
Monkeypox (2022 – in progress).
In the recent Covid-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization also declared the monkeypox outbreak to be a public health emergency of international concern. In fact, the virus is much less contagious than SARS-CoV-2, as its transmission occurs primarily through physical contact and especially sex. The disease in short is mild, although it causes a lot of pain, in addition to fever and rash.
With info from Mental Floss.
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